95 thesis full text
In all, several hundred copies of the Latin Theses were printed in Germany in 1517. Our people's traditionally clean, sound characteristics and essence were completely absent and abandoned, replaced by imperialistic, pornographic , shameless, perverted, and fanatic traits. They romanticize the revolution in the theoretically palatable thesis of Khieu Samphan, or Hou Youn, but do so at arms-length. She writes: These public pleas for support and the public concern raised by sensational, but false, documents finally provoked the Paris Mission of Democratic Kampuchea to protest that some journalists were degrading their profession and that the French. This treasure, however, is deservedly most hateful, for it makes the first to be last. Universities are based on the illimitable freedom of the human mind. "Distortions at Fourth Hand." Nation, June 25, 1977. In chapter 3, the Chomsky-Lacouture Controversy is reconstructed. Theses 1416 discuss the idea that the punishment of purgatory can be likened to the fear and despair felt by dying people. The bias against the majority of refugees is so severe that the only instance where a refugee critical of the Pol Pot-Ieng Sary regime is given equal treatment is when Chomsky taints him with CIA and drug-trafficking ties.
Martin Luther 95 Theses: The Full Text
Vana est fiducia salutis per literas veniarum, etiam si Commissarius, immo Papa ipse suam animam pro illis impigneraret. In addition meat eating has increased, In the past, under the influence of Buddhist tradition, the peasants took little part in the slaughtering of animals, and ate very little meat. Theses 57 then state that the pope can only release people from the punishments he has administered himself or through the church's system of penance, not the guilt of sin. Moreover, it is probably not important to know who fired the first the first shot. If his right to grant remission in these cases were disregarded, the guilt would certainly remain unforgiven. The reasoning followed that: first, the conversion of unproductive labor to productive labor (from city to countryside) would prevent starvation and second, epidemics necessitate evacuations.
66 Second, it rationalized everything the Khmer Rouge did and were doing (from the evacuation of Phnom Penh residents and hospital patients to the forcing of monks into hard labor). Or again: - Why do masses for the dead continue, and why does not the Pope return or permit to be withdrawn the funds which were established for the sake of the dead, 95 thesis full text since it is now wrong. Lacouture's timing, too, is significant. Lacouture was implying that something hideous was happening in the new Kampuchea, an idea the stav did not want to believe. Social entertaining, the tempo and rhythm of music and so forth were all based.S. This unbridled preaching of pardons makes it difficult even for learned men to defend the respect due the pope from false accusations, or even from the astute criticisms of the laity;. Moreover, Porter and Hildebrand were concerned about the image of the Khmer Rouge as somehow inhumane. From the spectrum of informed opinion only the most extreme condemnations have been selected, magnified, distorted, and hammered into popular consciousness through endless repetition. In one memorable point in the letter, Ponchaud pointedly asks Chomsky "How many Khmer refugees have you interviewed, where, when, in which language?" 175 manufactured interview with Khieu Samphan by Famiglia Christiana, in which when asked "what had happened. But the doves themselves had better explain why similar things haven't happened in Vietnam, where the bombing and uprooting were worse, and more sustained. An engraving was made showing Luther writing the Theses on the door of the church with a gigantic quill.
Martin Luther's 95 Theses
"The record of atrocities in Cambodia is substantial and often gruesome say Chomsky and Herman, "but it has by no means satisfied the requirements of Western propagandists, who must labor to shift the blame for the torment. Christians should be taught, it is not the Pope's opinion that the buying of indulgence is in any way comparable to works of charity. Sharp's assertion that Chomsky "has few peers" is especially true now, since he continues to maintain no one has successfully challenged his claims in After the Cataclysm. For constructive criticism on an earlier draft of this thesis, I am indebted. And what could they expect onto the elsewhere? This while some on the Left, particularly those in stav, zealously defended the Khmer revolution. In the Beginning Was the Word: The Bible in American Public Life.
101 This thesis forces him to reach back into the economic dissertations of Khieu Samphan and leads him as well to the unreserved use of Government of Democratic Kampuchea bulletins and official explanations-just as the sine qua non of the. Foreign policy and the.S. 250 Herman's assertion is a simple one: in order for the word autogenocide to be used, the majority of Cambodians would have to be dead. In addition, the.S. This punishment could be satisfied by the penitent's performing works of mercy. For the forgiveness contained in these pardons has reference only to the penalties of sacramental atonement which were appointed by men. 73 See also edit Notes and references edit Notes edit a b Latin : Disputatio pro declaratione virtutis indulgentiarum -The title comes from the 1517 Basel pamphlet printing.
They continue: The British scholar and journalist, John Gittings, writing in the London Guardian, compared Caldwell's role to that of Noam Chomsky in the.S.-"a lone heretic in the academic world, of enormous personal charm who was respected internationally. According to them, the "censorship" of these favorable accounts by the mass media is additional fuel for counter-revolutionary bias. It exploited the Western image of Kampuchea to justify its armed and political intervention in the internal affairs of its neighbouring communist state in a manner suggesting nothing more or less than expediency. Therefore, the treasures of the Gospel are nets, with which, in times of yore, one fished for the men of Mammon. So let us proceed with due caution 95 thesis full text in trying to understand Cambodia from all that is said about the Cambodians from their enemies, past and present." 223 Unfortunately for Hildebrand, the lesson ends when revolution implies propaganda. Relatively free from human rights violations. Gunn and Lee speculate that News from Kampuchea was published as a catalyst to the Barron-Paul book Murder of a Gentle Land (1977) which was the first English-language book to lambaste the Khmer revolution for its brutal excesses. He censured me for lacking a critical approach in my use of refugee accounts, on the ground that they were not credible because the refugees were deliberately trying to blacken the regime they had fled. This is equivalent to some 15,400 pounds of explosives for every square mile of Cambodian territory. These examples, if correct, would surely put a dent in the armor of the Western media. In other words, a refugee is the ultimate self-selector-he/she moves his/her body to another location. The two Americans Becker and Dudman were saved so that they could write back about the attack." 241 The Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars remembered Caldwell in a 1979 article entitled "Malcolm Caldwell,." 242 The authors of the article, Peter.
Ninety-five Theses - Wikipedia
From these such weakly formed theories, Chomsky and Herman assert, "If dictators were smarter, they would surely use the American system of thought control and indoctrination." 144 The baseline for their reasoning can be found in the first few paragraphs of the article. Countering charges that the print media's characterization of the evacuation as a "death march is another falsehood Porter and Hildebrand dispel. For instance, Chomsky and Herman are not, unlike Hildebrand, Porter, Caldwell, and Summers, so gullible as to use emissary testimonials without qualification. Shawcross' own analysis found that: Chomsky and Herman believe that the press coverage of Democratic Kampuchea from 1975-79 amounted to "a propaganda campaign" of "vast and unprecedented" scope. In order to understand in what context After the Cataclysm was published in 1979, a cursory analysis of Chomsky's and Herman's 1977 article is necessary. 256 Sharp's critique of Chomsky underlines the academic mistake that caused scholars in the stav to reject refugee stories with suspicion. 212 Shawcross, who is well respected by the Left for his Sideshow: Nixon, Kissinger, and the Destruction of Cambodia (1979 a book that damns Nixon and Kissinger for creating the Khmer Rouge, is merciless towards the Left. Seeking "truth wherever it may lead in the words of Thomas Jefferson, had no place when it came to revolutions. "Hundreds of Frenchmen who had earlier refused to leave the country, journalists of several nationalities, Cambodian officials of the defeated military regime and diplomats from other foreign missions including the Soviet embassy, sought and received shelter from the French.". Lawrence said that the treasures of the Church were the Church's poor, but he used the term in accordance with the custom of his own time. It seemed to make sense to the person who translated the thesis, Laura Summers, and still others who admired it, Malcolm Caldwell and Ben Kiernan, just to name two others. Herman likes to use Michael Vickery's estimate of 750,000 deaths resulting from because it is among the lower estimates available (notwithstanding the Khmer Rouge's admission of having caused 20,000-30,000 deaths). It would be facile to strip the words of these academics from the context of history, a practice not unlike that being undertaken by current revisionists.
Because no pure and "objective" viewers could be found, as the result of Khmer Rouge "self-reliance" foreign policy, the stav defaulted to a position of "utmost skepticism" favorable to the Pol Pot-Ieng Sary regime. No hesitation nor reservation to" Ieng Sary or Khieu Samphan's explanations was expressed by any of the four stav scholars reviewed. He unravels a sordid tale of revolutionary fanaticism at Cornell's seap from the 1960s though the 1970s. Docendi sunt christiani, quod, qui videt egenum et neglecto eo dat pro veniis, non idulgentias Pape sed indignationem dei sibi vendicat. I was mainly interested in 95 thesis full text the ordinary people, army privates, peasants, laborers, who could neither read nor write nor analyze what they had seen but those illiterate memories could supply exact details. The preachers have been promoting indulgences as the greatest of the graces available from the church, but they actually only promote greed. To it, one might wonder whom Ponchaud had mind when he pointedly asked, "How many of those unreservedly in support of the Khmer revolution would consent to endure one-hundredth part of the current suffering of the Cambodian people?". Porter and Hildebrand, 1976 65 In 1976, seap graduate Gareth Porter, and his colleague George. Luther's first widely successful work, it was reprinted twenty times. Revolutions notwithstanding, there is no mention of any crime committed by the Khmer Rouge during the evacuation. Yet the editors, in considering the prospects for Cambodia since the January 1979 invasion by Vietnam, contend that "Already within six months after its outbreak the invasion it has turned Kampuchea from a rich exporting country into a deadly place of hunger.
The 95 Theses of Martin Luther (1517) - CRI/Voice
Chomsky and Herman allude to that and more when they compare postwar Cambodia to the horrid American devastation of the country during the war, as the reader will discover in the next chapter. Non christiana predicant, qui docent, quod redempturis animas vel confessionalia 95 thesis full text non sit necessaria contritio. Every Christian who feels sincere repentance and woe on account of his sins, has perfect remission of pain and guilt even without letters of indulgence. Few Western academics had realized their own "historical contradictions" in explaining why, if Vietnam had been bombed many more times than Cambodia, its new rulers were not practicing anywhere near the same degree of brutality as those of the new Kampuchea. Lacouture's legitimacy within the antiwar circle, from having been an antiwar activist himself and scholar on Vietnam, 140 meant that he could not be contemptuously dismissed as a "right-winger." Lacouture's Erratas The Chomsky-Lacouture Controversy had only begun. Cambodia and Cambodians are not part of this ethical debate.
The Khmer Rouge Canon
Luther was assigned to teach at the University of Wittenberg in 1508, where he would spend his entire career. Disputation of Doctor Martin Luther on the power and efficacy of Indulgences. Chomsky and Herman reject Ponchaud's assertion that there is a prima facie case against the Khmer Rouge. All good points that cannot, in any case, be controlled. Disputatio pro Declaratione Virtutis Indulgentiarum. It must be the intention of the pope that if pardons, which are a very small thing, are celebrated with one bell, with single processions and ceremonies, then the Gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached. In former times the canonical penalties were imposed not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition. 137, October 29, 1987. He writes, in 1977 for the London Times, "Profound changes were needed, changes which could be brought about only by revolution." 50 Caldwell, who, like Summers, is canonized in this thesis, was understandably biased towards the Khmer Rouge. As George Orwell pointed out in reference to atrocity stories about the Spanish Civil War, those whose interests are against social change will always spread disinformation about revolutions; but these stories are irrelevant to the truth, neither its identity nor its opposite. 257 Unfortunately, they offer little that is new. Christians should be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better work than buying pardons;.
If the Pope seeks by his pardon the salvation of souls, rather than money, why does he annul letters of indulgence granted long ago, and declare them out of force, though they are still in force? For an increasingly large portion of the population." In other words, revolution. Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend that the buying of indulgences should in any way be compared with works of mercy. Christians should be exhorted to be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, death and hell. There can be no doubt that Chomsky and Herman, unlike Summers, Caldwell, Porter, and Hildebrand tried their best to put on an objective face. Porter and Hildebrand leave no stone unturned in their critique.S. It is more a Ponchaud- Controversy, to be sure, but that would sound tediously long. Morituri per mortem omnia solvunt et legibus canonum mortui iam sunt, habentes iure earum relaxationem. Although each of these contributors helped the final product, they are in no way responsible for the views expressed or the mistakes made by the author. Chapter 6, on Cambodia, has 427 endnotes in 159 95 thesis full text pages. After the Cataclysm: Postwar Indochina and the Reconstruction of Imperial Ideology. He had expressed concern to Utrecht (see chapter 2) before visiting the new Kampuchea, that if an innocent peasant had been killed it was a token of fascism. Kampuchea: Rational for a Rural Policy.
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The reader will see that the mistake made by each of these authors is academic. 254 Herman's reaction is not unexpected. Exhortandi sunt Christiani, ut caput suum Christum per penas, mortes infernosque sequi studeant,. Role and responsibility have been quickly forgotten or even explicitly denied as the mills of the propaganda machine grind away. The Khmer Rouge Canon shows that this was not the case. Albert requested such action from the Roman Curia. The conclusions from such a comparison seem obvious. True repentance desires God's punishment of sin, but indulgences teach one to avoid punishment, since that is the purpose of purchasing the indulgence. The Theses were copied and distributed to interested parties soon after Luther sent the letter to Archbishop Albert. Sylvester Mazzolini was also appointed to write an opinion which would be used in the trial against him. "Cambodia: Consolidating the Revolution" ended on another of many positive notes. Well suited for these aims are tales of Communist atrocities, which not only prove evils of communism but undermine the credibility of those who opposed the war and might interfere with future crusades for freedom. Chomsky and Herman pioneered, with Ben Kiernan, a new way to look at refugees: suspiciously.
Olim pene canonice non post, sed ante absolutionem imponebantur tanquam tentamenta vere contritionis. And the value of your conclusions is therefore very doubtful." 201 A review of the Porter-Hildebrand book, Cambodia: Starvation and Revolution, in June 1977 found that: Refugee accounts portray the new leaders of Democratic Kampuchea as wildly irrational, visionary fanatics. Ponchaud took offense with Chomsky and Herman's suggestions that he could have been misled by bourgeois refugees, which he was careful to avoid. As they looked elsewhere for space to forge ahead, their eyes stopped on Cambodia, where a fresh revolution had taken place, and its charming leaders had closed the country to the rest of the world. Or worse, the discredited Americans! Christians should be taught that unless they have more than they need, they are bound to keep what is necessary for their own families, and should by no means squander it on pardons. Table.1: Human Rights in the News 1976 Chile South Korea North Korea Cuba Cambodia New York Times Washington Post Sub-total ABC CBS NBC Sub-total Total Source: AIM Report, November 1977, Part I,. Born in 1928, he is the world-famous MIT linguist who advanced the grammatical system known as transformational, or generative, grammar. 120 To counter Lacouture, Ponchaud, Barron, and Paul, Chomsky and Herman used evidence from Summers, Caldwell, Kiernan, Porter, and Hildebrand. "The Proceedings at Augsburg, 1518". 33 Cambodia's rebirth into Democratic Kampuchea would make heavy use of self-reliance. After the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia in 1979, many of these activists, scholars, and academics were forced to choose between supporting their old friends, namely the Vietnamese communists or Democratic Kampuchea, which would have implicitly meant supporting the Khmer Rouge to varying degrees. Cambodia's contemporary history began with its colonization by France in 1883.
"Cambodian resistance: to what end?" Christian Science Monitor, vol. On the way to eternal damnation are they and their teachers, who believe that they are sure of their salvation through indulgences. Lacouture, whose namesake I use as part of the Controversy, took on the difficult task of fighting Chomsky. Although negative coverage did appear from various newspapers and magazines, it was never as concerted or organized as the editors assert, at least not until 1979. Lacouture writes: The pseudo revolutionaries in Cambodia have locked their country away from the eyes of the world, have turned many of their people into cadavers or mere cattle; they have not only killed Lon Nol's officials but have also murdered. Specifically, refugees questioned by Westerners or Thais have a vested interest in reporting atrocities on the part of Cambodian revolutionaries, an obvious fact that no serious reporter will fail to take into account. The shameless propagandizing continued without refrain. A romance with revolution dictates that it be humanitarian and just. Imperialism" under the banner of the United Front of the Three Indochinese People (uftip). Actions that prompted the evacuation.
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Martin Luther: A Brief Introduction to His Life and Works. Seldom even as he who has sincere repentance, is he who really gains indulgence; that is to say, most seldom to be found. Shawcross"s Gavin McCormick, a colleague of Chomsky's, and a proponent of the stav on Cambodia, as having written in an essay: The Kampuchean question is shrouded in a dense fog of prejudices, distortions, propaganda, and half truth. Ac sic magis per multas tribulationes intrare celum quam per securitatem pacis confidant. The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers: The Historical Development of Prophetic Interpretation. Shawcross, who became famous for blaming the actions of the Khmer Rouge on the United States, thought that very few journalists "wanted to believe the bloodbath theory." Some of the journalists, according to Shawcross, were. He would have wanted to be remembered as an activist on the British Left and an anti-imperialist fighter." 88 Caldwell published a number of articles 89 before submitting the draft of a paper titled "Cambodia: Rationale for a Rural. Equally inspiring to these scholars was Hou Youn's dissertation, "Kampuchea's Peasants and the Rural Economy." Like Khieu Samphan, Hou Youn stressed the exploitative dimensions of trade, not just between countries, but urban and rural regions.
From justification, Caldwell turns to apologia for Khmer Rouge. In theses 4147 Luther criticizes indulgences on the basis that they discourage works of mercy by those who purchase them. Peter's Minster should be burnt to ashes, rather than that it should be built up of the skin, flesh, and bones of his lambs. Emphasis is Retbøll's." 165 In an attempt to exculpate his colleagues, Caldwell, Chomsky, and Kiernan, Retbøll instead aggravates his own position and theirs. Holman Company, 1915, Vol. To be sure, there is no way that one can check the story of a refugee, just as there is no way one can check the story of a suspect if he has no alibi. Certum est, nummo in cistam tinniente augeri questum et avariciam posse: suffragium autem ecclesie est in arbitrio dei solius. To say that. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1978. Dicere, Crucem armis papalibus insigniter erectam cruci Christi equivalere, blasphemia est. Luther's Explanations on thesis seven asserted that one could based on God's promise, but Cajetan argued that the humble Christian should never presume to be certain of their standing before God. Prisonier des Khmer Rouges. Ignores Cambodia Death March." Washington Post, June 23, 1975.
The concentration of a large part of the population in the cities, where they were unproductive and totally dependent on foreign aid, posed grave dangers. The evidence leaves little doubt: "Consolidating the Revolution "Defining the Revolutionary State "Rationale for 95 thesis full text a Rural Policy and Starvation and Revolution had virtually no cloaks or token allowances. Bishops and curates are bound to receive the commissaries of papal pardons, with all reverence. 170 How credible was the evidence Ponchaud, Barron-Paul, and Lacouture relied upon? Johannes von Wesel had also attacked indulgences late in the 15th century. She does a fantastic job of rationalizing away the more awkward Khmer Rouge policies such as expelling all foreigners. Hildebrand and Porter disagree. These articles, entitled "Cambodia: Consolidating the Revolution" and "Defining the Revolutionary State in Cambodia were published in December 1975 and December, 1976, respectively. Luther claims that ignoring these questions risks allowing people to ridicule the pope. 81 In a recent editorial in the Wall Street Journal opposing the.S.
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