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Essay on breast cancer treatment uk


essay on breast cancer treatment uk

Essay on Cancer Treatment: (Around 650 Words) Human Clinical Trials Involve Multiple Phases of essay on breast cancer treatment uk Testing : Evaluating a new drug in humans involves a series of tests called clinical trials. Several of the drugs obtained from plants act as topoisomerase inhibitors; included in this category are etoposide and teniposide, derived from a substance present in the mayapple (mandrake) plant, and topotecan and irinotecan, derived from a substance present. Survivors pulled from the water, which had become heavily contaminated with nitrogen mustard, exhibited severe skin burns and quickly developed a variety of internal symptoms, including a dramatic drop in the number of blood lymphocytes. Find out what a geriatric assessment involves. Because blood vessels are involved with flap procedures, these strategies are usually not recommended for a woman with a history of diabetes or connective tissue or vascular disease, or for a woman who smokes, as the risk of problems.

History And, treatment, of, breast, cancer, biology

The net result was that tumor-killing lymphocytes became a large portion of each persons immune system, and a significant number of patients experienced tumor regressions. Of course, expectations for a quick cancer cure were unrealistic, and there are many reasons why it would be premature to come to any definitive conclusions at this point regarding the effectiveness of anti-angiogenic therapy. They are given by injection and stop the ovaries from making estrogen for 1 to 3 months. People diagnosed with cancer have a variety of treatment options available that depend both on the type of cancer they have and how far it has spread. In 2005, researchers reported a study showing a 50 fall in the rate of breast cancer recurrence after one year of treatment. Unlike antibodies, these inhibitors are small enough to enter cells and affect intracellular proteins. Another group of drugs inhibit the activity of androgen receptors, which are receptor proteins located in prostate epithelial cells that bind incoming androgens and transmit the signal that stimulates cell division. People are encouraged to talk with the health care team about these topics prior to starting treatment.


Learn more about the essay on breast cancer treatment uk basics of chemotherapy. Such approaches are currently under active investigation to see whether they might be of any use in the treatment of cancer. Shortly after it was introduced, several studies reported that PC-spes slowed the growth of prostate cancer in humans (Figure 20). The first approved targeted therapies for breast cancer were hormonal therapies. This includes tests that can predict the risk of recurrence by testing your tumor tissue (such as Oncotype Dx or MammaPrint; see.


Free, breast, cancer - Diagnosis and, treatment

Consequently prednisone, a synthetic glucocorticoid that slows down the proliferation of lymphocytes, is sometimes used in treating lymphomas and lymphocytic leukemias. People often receive treatment for the cancer at the same time they receive treatment to ease side effects. You can ask for this kind of help at any stage of your illness. These are used depending on the tumor and the type of treatment previously received. You'll probably have hormone therapy after surgery and chemotherapy, but it's sometimes given before surgery to shrink a tumour, making it easier to remove. For patients having a lumpectomy, reconstruction may be done at the same time to improve the look of the breast and to match the breasts. Although these problems are very unusual, talk with your doctor about the risks. AIs decrease the amount of estrogen made in tissues other than the ovaries in postmenopausal women by blocking the aromatase enzyme.


Your periods will stop while you're taking it, although they essay on breast cancer treatment uk should start again once your treatment is complete. Talk with your doctor about possible side effects of specific medications and how they can be managed. Those side effects include swelling of the arm called lymphedema, the risk of numbness, as well as arm movement and range-of-motion problems with the shoulder, which are long-lasting issues that can severely affect a persons quality of life. With other types of cancer, especially when they have metastasized to unknown locations, it becomes necessary to stimulate an immune response against cancer cells wherever they may have traveled. BCR-ABL is a fusion gene generated during the chromosomal translocation that creates the Philadelphia chromosome. These drugs include anastrozole (Arimidex exemestane (Aromasin and letrozole (Femara). They have also been rarely linked to other types of cancer. The tumor-killing lymphocytes were then injected back into the bloodstream and the patients were treated with IL-2 to further stimulate the proliferation of the injected cells. If cancer cells are found in the surrounding tissue, more tissue may need to be removed from your breast. This type of care is any treatment that focuses on reducing symptoms, improving quality of life, and supporting patients and their families. Radiation therapy schedule Radiation therapy is usually given daily for a set number of weeks.


Dihydrofolate reductase catalyzes the production of a reduced form of folic acid that is required for the synthesis of several bases found in DNA; inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase by methotrexate therefore disrupts pathways involved in DNA synthesis and repair. It may be used in addition to another type of hormonal therapy for women who have not been through menopause. One of the first of these viruses to be tested in humans was onyx-O15, an adenovirus containing a mutation designed to permit the virus to replicate only in cells with a defective p53 pathway. This type of medication is given through the bloodstream to reach cancer cells throughout the body. Ablation can be carried out using surgery or radiotherapy. However, these procedures may be optional for some patients older than. For larger cancers, or those that are growing more quickly, doctors may recommend systemic treatment with chemotherapy or hormonal therapy before surgery, called neoadjuvant therapy. Change in bowel or bladder habits. The type of hormone therapy you'll have will depend on the stage and grade of your cancer, which hormone it's sensitive to, your age, whether you have experienced the menopause, and what other type of treatment you're having.


Saline implants tend to feel different than silicone implants. After a cancer has metastasized, symptoms may appear in other parts of the body and, in some cases, may represent the first signs of disease. For breast cancers that retain this estrogen requirement, drugs that block estrogen action may be effective cancer treatments. Studies have shown that breast-conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy is as successful as total mastectomy at treating early-stage breast cancer. A more toxic version, called nitrogen mustard, was produced and stockpiled by both Germany and the United States during World War. Using a cancer patients own stem cells for subsequent transplantation creates the risk of either reintroducing cancer cells or relying on stem cells that have been damaged during earlier cancer treatments. As we will see shortly, IL-2 is also being used experimentally to stimulate antitumor lymphocytes that are isolated from a patients tumor site and grown in the laboratory prior to being injected back into the bloodstream. However, radical mastectomies are rarely performed today because such extensive tissue removal has not been found to improve survival compared to less drastic procedures. For people older than 65, a geriatric oncologist or geriatrician may also be involved in care. This discovery raises the possibility of attacking the disease at its root cause- defective genes. Your doctor will discuss the impact any treatment essay on breast cancer treatment uk will have on your fertility with you.


Case study and the treatment of breast cancer, essay, services

Antibiotics are generally thought of as being antibacterial drugs, but some of them exhibit anticancer properties as well. Another approach for improving the effectiveness of chemotherapy deals with the potential problem of bone marrow damage. In the following sections, each category will be discussed in turn:. The essay on breast cancer treatment uk underlying reasoning is that individuals with cancer often possess lymphocytes that are capable of attacking tumor cells, but these lymphocytes are not produced in sufficient quantities to keep the tumor under control. Ovarian suppression involves using a medication called goserelin, which is a luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist (lhrha). These are then examined by a pathologist for cancer cells. Patients receiving trastuzumab have a small (2 to 5) risk of heart problems. Although early results have been promising, PBI is still being studied. A doctor who specializes in giving radiation therapy to treat cancer is called a radiation oncologist. It stops the ovaries working permanently and means you'll experience the menopause early. The first few individuals are given a very low dose of the drug and monitored closely for toxic side effects. This degree of benefit in early breast cancer was the largest reported since the introduction of tamoxifen. They're given alongside conventional treatments and include: Complementary therapy can help some women cope with diagnosis and treatment, and provide a break from the treatment plan.


Breast cancer in women, treatment - NHS

Clodronate is only available outside of the United States. An intriguing example involves an herbal product called PC-spes (PC for Prostate Cancer and spes from the Latin word for hope). Acupressure and acupuncture to help with nausea and vomiting from chemotherapy. One type of treatment is radiation therapy, which uses high-energy X-rays or other forms of ionizing radiation to kill cancer cells. Women having a lumpectomy and radiation therapy who have a smaller tumor and no more than 2 sentinel lymph nodes with cancer may avoid a full axillary lymph node dissection. DNA contains two types of bases: single-ring compounds called pyrimidines, which include the bases cytosine (C) and thymine (T and double-ring compounds called purines, which include the bases adenine (A) and guanine (G). When breast cancer recurs, a new cycle of testing will begin again to learn as much as possible about the recurrence. The drug also has hidden dangers because it essay on breast cancer treatment uk breaks down to form cyanide, and some people treated with laetrile may have died of cyanide poisoning rather than their cancers. This drug is approved for stage II and stage III breast cancer in combination with trastuzumab and chemotherapy. There are several types of mastectomies. Your doctor can help you consider all your treatment options. For this purpose scientists have turned to molecules called cytokines, which are proteins produced by the body to stimulate immune responses against infectious agents. For this reason, monoclonal antibodies cannot be used for repeated treatments unless they are first made more human-like by replacing large parts of the mouse antibody molecule with corresponding sequences derived from human antibodies.


Individuals who rely solely on these alternative remedies may put themselves at considerable risk. The stem cells used for transplantation can be obtained either from a cancer patients own bone marrow or blood prior to administration of high-dose chemotherapy, or from the bone marrow or blood of a genetically compatible individual. This is approved for the treatment of patients with early-stage breast cancer who have had treatment with trastuzumab and chemotherapy with either paclitaxel or docetaxel followed by surgery, and who had cancer remaining (or present) at the time of surgery. A mastectomy may also be recommended, with or without immediate reconstruction. They're part of the lymph nodes under the arm (axillary lymph nodes). To find the most effective treatment, your doctor may run tests to identify the genes, proteins, and other factors in your tumor. As shown in Figure 6, women with breast cancer whose tumors have a high recurrence score are more likely to develop metastases than are women whose tumors exhibit a low recurrence score. Essay on Cancer Treatment: (Around 700 Words) Hormones and Differentiating Agents are Relatively Nontoxic Tools for Halting the Growth of Certain Cancers : One of the main problems essay on breast cancer treatment uk with the drugs described thus far is that their toxic effects.


Breast, treatment, of, breast, cancer, screening - 922 Words Cram

This difference in susceptibility makes rapidly growing cancers more sensitive to the Killing effects of radiation than slower-growing cancers and also helps protect non-dividing or slowly dividing normal cells in the surrounding tissue from being killed by the radiation. This depends on how large the lymph nodes are, the tumors stage, and the persons overall health. The doctor will then recommend essay on breast cancer treatment uk treating the cancer in other ways. Advertisements: The conversion of dysplasia into cancer typically requires several years, providing a significant window of opportunity during which the dysplastic region can be removed or destroyed to prevent cancer from arising. Taking this approach one step further, analyzing cancer specimens for gene expression patterns and the presence of specific mutations may provide information about the exact type of cancer treatment that is most appropriate for each person.


As might be expected, their success has stimulated interest in developing other drugs that target molecules important to cancer cells. It is important to find out whether any of the lymph nodes near the breast contain cancer. Trastuzumab is usually given intravenously, through a drip. For example, the experimental group might receive the standard treatment along with the new drug, while the control group receives the standard treatment along with a placebo. For example, the location of a brain tumor may make it impossible to remove the tumor without causing unacceptable brain damage, and leukemias cannot be treated surgically because the cancer cells reside mainly in the bloodstream. The main treatments for breast cancer are: You may have one of these treatments, or a combination. At present, TNF is still under active investigation and IL-2 is an approved treatment for advanced kidney cancer and melanoma. The umbilical cord, which is normally discarded at birth, contains blood with a large number of hematopoietic stem cells. For this reason, radiation therapy is usually divided into multiple treatments administered over several weeks or months. Common drugs include: Capecitabine (Xeloda) Carboplatin (available as a generic drug) Cisplatin (available as a generic drug) Cyclophosphamide (available as a generic drug) Docetaxel (Taxotere) Doxorubicin (available as a generic drug) Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil) Epirubicin (Ellence) Eribulin (Halaven) Fluorouracil (5-FU, Efudex). You'll probably have radiotherapy sessions 3 to 5 days a week, for 3 to 6 weeks.


Breast cancer treatment, understanding Animal Research Understanding

This procedure helps avoid removing multiple lymph nodes with an axillary lymph node dissection (see below) for patients whose sentinel lymph nodes are mostly free of cancer. Breast-conserving surgery, breast-conserving surgery ranges from a lumpectomy or wide local excision, where just the tumour and a little surrounding breast tissue is removed, to a partial mastectomy or quadrantectomy, where up to a quarter of the breast is removed. Essay on Cancer Treatment: (Around 700 Words) Combination Chemotherapy and Stem Cell Transplants are Two Strategies for Improving the Effectiveness of Chemotherapy : For certain kinds of cancer, chemotherapy is successful in restoring normal life expectancies to many patients. Early studies revealed that cancer patients are more likely than other individuals to be depressed and anxious, which was initially interpreted to mean that psychological stress can cause cancer. Tamoxifen is a drug that blocks estrogen from binding to breast cancer cells. Surgery is usually followed by radiation therapy to the breast to destroy any cancer cells that may remain in the area. Essay on Cancer Treatment: (Around 650 Words) Alkylating and Platinating Drugs Act by Crosslinking DNA: Alkylating agents are highly reactive organic molecules that trigger DNA damage by linking themselves directly to DNA. Learn more about the basics of immunotherapy. Want to know more?


essay on breast cancer treatment uk

Example for Free, treatment

Talazoparib (Talzenna) for women with essay on breast cancer treatment uk locally advanced or metastatic HER2-negative breast cancer and a brca1 or brca2 gene mutation. This provides a good indicator of whether the cancer has spread. Essay on Cancer Treatment: (Around 650 Words) Surgery can Cure Cancers when they have not yet Metasized : Surgical techniques for removing tumors were first described more than three thousand years ago, making surgery the oldest approach for treating cancer. Substantial efforts are currently being made to develop monoclonal antibodies that bind to and inactivate key proteins involved in the signaling pathways required for cancer cell proliferation. In this situation, a full axillary lymph node dissection is preferred. ACT therapy is still an experimental procedure and will be difficult to apply to large numbers of patients, but these results suggest that cancer therapies may eventually be able to exploit the ability of lymphocytes to recognize and kill cancer cells. Systemic therapy concerns for older patients Age should never be the only factor used to determine treatment options. Since infections stimulate the immune system, it was postulated that the stimulated immune cells might be attacking cancer cells as well as the invading bacteria. Although some of the resulting drugs have turned out to be useful in treating cancer, their effectiveness is often limited by toxic effects on normal dividing cells. They may be used in a different combination or given at a different pace. Over-expression of HER-2 occurs in 20 to 30 of tumours in patients with breast cancer. Based on this discovery, a test called Oncotype DX has been devised that measures the activity of these 21 genes and converts the data into a single number called a recurrence score.


ON this page : You will learn about the different types of treatments doctors use for people with breast cancer. One of the first such drugs to be developed, called Gleevec (generic name imatinib is a small molecule that binds to and inhibits the abnormal tyrosine kinase produced by the BCR-ABL oncogene present in chronic myelogenous leukemias. A growing body of evidence suggests that in any given tumor, only a small population of cells, called cancer stem cells, are able to proliferate indefinitely. The immune system sometimes recognizes cancer cells through the presence of specific antigens that cancer cells carry. Essay on Cancer Treatment: (Around 850 Words) Toxic Side Effects and Drug Resistance Limits the Effectiveness of Chemotherapy : The ultimate goal of chemotherapy is to destroy or restrain the proliferation of cancer cells without harming normal cells. Essay on Cancer Treatment: (Around 700 Words). It is also important to let your doctor know if you are taking any prescription or over-the-counter medications or supplements. There are 2 main types of breast cancer surgery: breast-conserving surgery the cancerous lump (tumour) is removed mastectomy surgery to remove the whole breast. It's important to speak to your breast cancer specialist nurse about any complementary therapy you wish to use to make sure it doesn't interfere with your conventional treatment. The injection, which can cause some discomfort, lasts about 15 seconds. There may be several benefits to having other treatments before surgery: Women who may have needed a mastectomy could have breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) if the tumor shrinks before surgery.


For further inmformation see: faseb'sBreakthroughs in Bioscience essay, breast Cancer, Tamoxifen and essay on breast cancer treatment uk Beyond: Estrogen and Estrogen Receptors. They were thought to cause connective tissue disorders, but clear evidence of this has not been found. The outside of a saline-filled implant is made up of silicone, and it is filled with sterile saline, which is salt water. Some success was eventually seen with Bacillus Calmette- Guerin (BCG a bacterial strain that does not cause disease but elicits a strong immune response at the site where it is introduced into the body. Advertisements: Are you looking for an essay on Cancer Treatment? There is a wide range of breast cancer treatments, including the use of hormones to stop the growth of cancerous cells, high dose x-rays and chemotherapy to kill cancer cells, and surgery. Tamoxifen works well in women who have been through menopause and those who have not. In addition to treatments intended to slow, stop, or eliminate the cancer, an important part of cancer care is relieving a persons symptoms and side effects. One way in which cancer cells become resistant to multiple drugs is by producing plasma membrane proteins that actively pump drugs out of the cells. The antibodies then bind to the cancer cell surface, where their presence triggers an immune attack that destroys only those cells to which the antibody is attached (Figure 14, top).


Essay on, cancer, treatment (For Medical Students) Types Diseases

Breast Cancer continues to take the lives of women living in this large segment of population. If there is cancer in the lymph nodes under the arm, radiation therapy may also be given to the same side of the neck or underarm near the breast or chest wall. For example, radiation damage to the dividing cells that line the gastrointestinal tract causes nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Radiation therapy may be given after or before surgery: Adjuvant radiation therapy is given after surgery. However, the appearance of the breast may be preferred, especially when radiation therapy is part of the treatment plan.


Any of the preceding symptoms might be a sign of cancer, but the list has two shortcomings that limit its usefulness. One widely used approach for measuring gene expression is DNA microarray analysis, a technique which can monitor the activity of thousands of genes simultaneously. In the absence of such information, doctors would usually recommend that most patients receive chemotherapy. Although the goal of surgery is to remove all of the visible cancer, microscopic cells can be left behind, either in the breast or elsewhere. When T lymphocytes were isolated from the immunized animals, essay on breast cancer treatment uk these T lymphocytes could kill tumor cells in culture and transfer tumor immunity when injected into other animals. One of the most fruitful sources of antibiotics for cancer chemotherapy has been a group of bacteria called Streptomyces. When tamoxifen was developed in the 1960s, most research was focused on chemotherapy. These advances were discovered in clinical trials, where new treatments and treatment combinations are compared with standard ones. Surgery may be easier to perform because the tumor is smaller.


Since the p53 pathway is defective in a majority of essay on breast cancer treatment uk human cancers, it was predicted that onyx-015 might be a broadly useful tool for killing cancer cells. Chemotherapy medication can also stop the production of oestrogen in your body, which is known to encourage the growth of some breast cancers. Whichever treatment plan you choose, palliative care will be important for relieving symptoms and side effects. In either case, mutations that disable apoptosis would be expected to decrease the effectiveness of any drug that kills a particular type of cancer cell primarily by triggering apoptosis. One way to pursue the goal of molecular targeting is to take advantage of the specificity of antibodies. Life after cancer may get back to normal, but it will never be the same" (Kneece, 2009,.242). Overall, these studies show that radiation therapy reduces the risk of breast cancer recurrence in the same breast, compared with no radiation therapy. Introduction the stage of the tumor, genomic markers, such as Oncotype DX and MammaPrint (if appropriate) (See. Talk with your doctor about the benefits and risks of silicone versus saline implants. Currently, proton therapy is an experimental treatment and may not be widely available.


Third, angiogenesis inhibitors may work best when their concentration within the body is maintained at a relatively constant level, which is quite different from the way in which standard chemotherapy is typically, administered using large intermittent doses. Choosing the right treatment for you. This can change over time as your health care needs change. Hormone therapy works by lowering the levels of hormones in your body or by stopping their effects. Aromatase inhibitors block production of the female hormone oestrogen, starving' breast cancer cells of growth stimuli. In essence, ammonium chloride present in the culture medium had reacted with platinum in the electrodes to form a nitrogen-containing platinum compound called cisplatin, which in turn inhibited bacterial cell division. Ovarian suppression for 5 years along with additional hormonal therapy, such as tamoxifen or an AI, may be recommended in the following situations, depending on a womans age and risk of recurrence: For women who are diagnosed with breast cancer at a very young age. In addition, tumor blood vessels tend to be leaky, causing drug-polymer complexes to leave the bloodstream and enter tumor tissues more readily than normal tissues. For example, the standard treatment for breast cancer between 19 was the radical mastectomy, a drastic and disfiguring operation that involves complete surgical removal of the breast along with the underlying chest muscles and lymph nodes of the armpit. Patients who volunteer for a clinical trial are given information regarding the nature of their disease, the potential risks and benefits of the treatment being tested, and the availability of other treatment options.



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