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Unemployment summary essay

unemployment summary essay

All the opportunities have been projected in for the organised sector. Extent of Farm Unemployment : A high degree of unemployment and underemployment prevails among the agricultural workers of the country. In India, about 72 per cent of the working population is engaged in agriculture and allied activities. (x) SHGs and Micro Finance: Adequate steps be taken for promoting self help groups (SHGs) for generating self employment opportunities. The number of urban poor imparted skill training in 2005-06 was.42 lakh against a target.0 lakh. Therefore, the major future thrust in additional job creation should probably be neither in agricultural sector nor in industry but in what Prof. On the whole, the Tenth Plan aimed at the creation of approximately 50 million employment opportunities during a period of 5 years, of which 30 million will be created from normal process of growth and rest 20 million will be created from special initiatives.

Unemployment, essay in English English, summary

This could be mainly because of the absence of regular employment for many workers. Urban unemployment unemployment summary essay rates (current daily status) were higher than rural unemployment rates for both males and females in 1993-94. These were: (i) Usual Status Unemployment, (ii) Weekly Status Unemployment and (iii) Daily Status Unemployment. When the situation arises where there are more other resources for the production and no man power leads to wastage of economic resources and lost output of goods and services and this has a great impact on government expenditure directly (Clark, 2003). In order to clear the backlog of unemployment and also to provide jobs to additional labor force joining the mainstream workers, this expansion in the volume of works needs to be done rapidly and that too in the areas of both wage employment and self-employment.

But in the latest period, 1986-92, for which NSS data are readily available only.7 per cent of males and.3 per cent of females entering the work force got farm jobs. Many economists (Anderson, 2006) have done research studies to alleviate this problem and to find solutions. This programme was meant for generating self-employment opportunities by imparting training to the rural youths in various trades and skills. (iii) Development of Allied Sector: The problem of rural unemployment can be tackled adequately by developing allied sector which includes activities like dairy farming, poultry farming, bee keeping, fishery, horticulture, sericulture, agro processing etc. Is the New Economic Policy Promoting Jobless Growth? So, taking the employment ratio of 50 per cent, the employment requirement of India is 52 crore which is again increasing by nearly 80 lakh per annum as the population is growing.6 crore annually. Get help with your essay today from our professional essay writers! You can use official statistical data, articles from reputable journals, previous studies on the topic, etc. (vii) Banking Support: In order to solve the problem of urban unemployment, the scheduled commercial banks should come forward with rational proposals for the development of SSIs, various units in the services sector and also for the development of urban. It will also include decentralization of the small-scale sector, the urban informal sector and the services sector, expansion of rural infrastructure, housing and health and educational services, especially in rural areas, revamping of the training system and streamlining of the special. At the end of pmry has developed micro enterprises to the extent.2 lakh and generated employment to the extent.82 lakh since its inception in October 1993.

As such unemployment is not a good thing for anyone in our society, and even the people who remain employed will suffer as a result (m). . Moreover, the usual status (US) unemployment rate is generally regarded as the measure of chronic open unemployment during the reference year while the current daily status (CDS) is considered as a comprehensive measure of unemployment, including both chronic and invisible unemployment. Gupta, Member, Planning Commission. (vi) Rural Development Schemes: In order to eradicate the problem of rural unemployment, the Central as well as the State Governments should work seriously for introducing and implementing rural development schemes so that the benefit of such development. (a) Rural Unemployment: In India the incidence of unemployment is more pronounced in the rural areas. But the rate of growth of employment prevailing in a country like India are not very much conducive and encouraging. Under this scheme, a part of wages those workers engaged in rural works was paid in terms of food grains. Estimating the Trend in Employment Growth. The two-pronged objective of the Act are firstly to ensure food security through unemployment summary essay employment generation and secondly, creation of permanent assets. More new resource based and demand based industries should be set up for generating employment opportunities. But during the first four years of the Seventh Plan nearly Rs 2,940 crore were spent under nrep generating 1,447.7 million man-days of employment which has fulfilled plan target. Some of these studies are pointing affirmative answer to this question and again some other studies are pointing a different answer to this question.

The Causes And Impacts

The number of unemployment summary essay urban poor assisted for setting up micro/group enterprises in 2005-06 was.9 lakh against a target.80 lakh. The unemployment entails the squandering of the main productive force of the society the labor force on an enormous scale, a significant reduction in the national income and countrys potential gross product. Under this scheme, applicants will be given a family card listing the number of days of employment under different programmes. In urban areas, employment for females decreased by more than one percentage point in, while it remained at the same level for males. The study made. It increases income generation to the economy (Fritz, 2006). The placement was maximum in Gujarat whereas the registration was maximum.P.

Thus the growth rate of employment in the organised sector remained relatively stable.e., from.44 per cent in 1991.55 per cent in 1995,.51 per cent in 1996 and unemployment summary essay then declined to only (-).6 per cent in 2001. According to the contracts of the Department of Labor, the unemployment in September 2009 was.8 and since that time it continues to (Bureau of Labor Statistics) grow. But the CSO estimates of GDP growth rates for these three years were1.1 per cent for 1991-92,.0 per cent for 1992-93 and.8 per cent (advance estimates) for 1993-94. Employment strategies advocated in the Approach Paper include:. Unemployed not working and not contributing for income generation of the economy, but also they claim benefits from the government and it is an additional cost for the economy as a whole (Baker, 2009). A total of 3,99,979 km road length have been completed and new connectivity have been provided to over 97,838 habitations up to March 2014. We recommend you to take a look at our writing tips and an unemployment essay example you can use for your writing. The number of unemployed men was almost two million more than women. (November 2014 unemployment rate.6 Stockton-Lodi, Calif. Recently, a study conducted by a industry group in December 2013 among more than 5,600 firms across 12 industry sectors. Improved economic outcomes, especially in watershed activities, and reductions in distress migration are its other achievements. The employment Generation strategy of the Eleventh Plan is also predicted on the reduction of under employment and movement of surplus labour in agricultural sector to higher wage and more gainful employment in the non-agricultural sector. General Remedies to Unemployment Problems: (i) Special Employment Programmes: In order to meet the gap between the requirement and the actual generation of employment opportunities, special employment programmes must be undertaken as an interim measure till the economy could.

During the Sixth Plan, a sum of Rs 1,661 crore was spent on this programme as against the provision of Rs 1,500 crore and the total number of beneficiaries covered during the plan period was.56 million as against the target of 15 million. Economic Reforms has resulted large scale retrenchment of surplus workers in different industries and administrative departments due to down-sizing of workers. About 541.52 lakh man-days of work have been generated through the construction of economically and socially useful public assets under suwe and shasu till 1994-95. (viii) The Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (sgsy) and nrlm: sgsy was launched in April, 1999 and is the only self employment programme currently being implemented. Our unemployment summary essay proficient writers have vast experience in composing academic papers on various topics. The nulm will focus on organizing urban poor in SHGs, creating opportunities for skill development leading to market based employment, and helping them to set up self- employment ventures by ensuring easy access to credit. About the performance of sjsry, total number of beneficiaries under usep was.04 million in 1998-99 and.10 million in and total number of persons trained under usep was.05 million in and.12 million.

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After a period of slow progress during 2004-05 to 2009-10, employment generation picked up during 2009-10 to 2011-12 adding.9 million persons to the work force, but not keeping pace with the increase in labour force (14.9 persons). Thus all these above are considered as basic elements of the employment oriented growth unemployment summary essay strategy envisaged in the plan. But as 58 million employment opportunities will be created in the Eleventh Plan this would leave nearly 42 million workers to be absorbed in the non-agricultural unorganised sector, which is, no doubt, a difficult proposition. APA, mLA, chicago, unemployment. During to 2004-05, about 47 million work opportunities were created compared to only 24 million in the period between 1993-00. Mundle has assumed growth rates.9,.0 and.7 per cent for 1991- 92, respectively. Thus, while chronic open unemployment rate in India hovers around a low 2 per cent, it is significant in absolute terms. Thus the employment strategy in the Tenth Plan needs, therefore, to focus on adequate employment growth and on the qualitative aspects of employment. It creates negative affects to unemployed as they are jobless and suffer from worse prospects to find new job and those who are employed feel less secure to keep their jobs in future. During the Sixth Plan the growth rate of employment was.32 per cent per annum. The MSY is aimed at empowering rural women with greater control over household resources and savings. Total number of educated unemployment in India increased from.4 lakh in 1951.9 lakh in 1961 and then.96 lakh in 1971.

However, the data available, from 68th round of nsso (2011-12) indicates a revival in unemployment summary essay employment growth in manufacturing from 11 per cent in 2009-10.6 per cent in 2011-12. If also plans to address livelihood concerns of urban street vendors. The number of unemployed as percentage of total labour force which was.9 per cent at the end of the First Plan gradually increased.6 per cent at the end of Annual Plans in 1969. The incidence of unemployment on CDS basis increased from.31 per cent in 1999-00.28 per cent in 2004-05. Critical Evaluation : It is important to make critical evaluation of the employment policy followed in India both in terms of achievements and failures.

Essay on, unemployment for Children and Students

Moreover, higher outlays had been provided in the Eighth Plan in the agriculture, rural development, village and small industries and environment sectors with the aim of providing better job opportunities. The share of agriculture in total employment dropped from 61 per cent to 57 per cent. Table.5(c) will clarify this situation. At the same time, the highest unemployment rate that was recorded among the.S. (v) Development of Urban Informal Sector: As a good number urban people are engaged in urban informal sector, thus adequate steps must be taken for the improvement and modernisation of this informal sector so as to expand the.

However, the scenario of lay-offs would be much more serious in the coming months. Changes in the global Markets are another important factor. Advertisements: The Committee of Experts on Unemployment under the Chairmanship. (b) High priority would be accorded to attain growth and lines of production with high employment intensity along with the maintenance of demand-supply balance. In 1995-96, Rs 100 crore were allocated for the programme.

Causes and Effects of, unemployment, essay

Employment Policy in the unemployment summary essay Tenth Plan : The Approach Paper to the Mid-Term Appraisal of the Tenth Plan has reiterated that employment growth should exceed the growth of labour force to reduce the backlog of unemployment. For the year 2002-03, an amount of Rs 2,800 crore was provided. However, downsizing of the government has also created a serious impact on the employment scenario of the country. Table.9 reveals that the country experienced an increasing trend in additional employment generation,.e., from.00 million in 1990-91.18 million in 1994-95. As per one recent Government report, over 100 million job seekers will seek employment in the country. The Panchayat will then issue a job card to that person and the person will be entitled to apply for employment. Bhattacharjee, Ashok Rudra,.S. However, in 2004, rural unemployment rates for males were higher than that of urban males. Conclusion Unemployment is a serious issue for any economy. The 6ist round of nsso survey revealed a faster increase in employment during to 2004-05 as compared. Thus the estimates made by the planners is found highly unrealistic and over-optimistic considering the ground realities.

unemployment summary essay

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It gives some relaxation to consumers in spending their disposable income. Thus considering all these programmes introduced in the employment policy of the country under different plans, it can be concluded that these programmes could not make much headway in solving both the rural and urban unemployment in the country. (iv) JRY: Moreover, the achievement of JRY in respect of employment generation was 782 million man- days in 1992-93 and 1,026 million man-days in 1993-94. Under the programme, so far 293.46 lakh jobs unemployment summary essay have been provided to households. Employment scenario in India is likely to improve in recent years. The Centre of Advanced Development Research (cadr) has also criticised various employment generation programmes launched by the Government which has touched only a fringe of the problem and has suggested measures for labour-intensive, and land based programmes. The annual growth rate of employment which was.40 per cent during the period 1983- 94, but the same rate declined to a mere.98 per cent during the period. At the end of each Five Year Plan, the backlog of unemployment in India has been increasing as the volume of employment generated cannot match this additional number of labour included in work force.

This would be conducive for solving the growing problem of rural unemployment of the country as a whole. In the year 1989-90, the centre made a provision of Rs 2,100 crore. During 2001-02, Rs 168 crore was allocated against which.50 crore was spent. (c) Discouraging unnecessary and indiscriminate increase in capital intensity and encouraging the adoption of production techniques with higher employment potential per unit of capital. Some basic and heavy industries which were already established in the field of iron and steel, chemicals, defence goods, heavy machineries, power generation, atomic energy etc. In order to enhance employment opportunities for the poor, the Ninth Plan has Undertaken a National Employment Assistance Scheme, recognising the high incidence of under-employment and increasing casualization of labour. It should be noted that the policy to combat unemployment in the United States is quite effective because it is able not only to reduce unemployment to a normal level but also to ensure sustainable economic growth. (f) Drought Area Programme: This programme was introduced for the economic development of certain vulnerable areas by organising productive and labour-intensive programmes like medium and minor irrigation, soil conservation, afforestation and road construction. Swaminathan, made a study on the unemployment problem of the country. (vi) Prime Ministers Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Programme (pmiupep The Prime Ministers Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Programme (pmiupep) was launched in 1995-96 with a specific objective of effective achievement of social sector goals, community empowerment, employment generation and skill upgradation, shelter upgradation. However, on the basis of CDS, the number of unemployed person days declined from.3 million in 2004-05.0 million in 2009-10 and further.7 million in 2011-. The main objectives of these programmes were to provide employment to 100 persons on an average to each block over the working seasons of 10 months in every year and secondly to produce durable assets.

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Table.5(c) reveals that as per the National Sample Survey Office (nsso) data during to 2004-05, employment on usual states (US) basis increased.9 million persons from 398.0 million to 457.9 million as against the increase in labour. (November 2014 unemployment rate.2 Merced, Calif. She estimated that the extent of surplus work force in agriculture was.1 per cent during 1960s. In view of the centrality of the employment objective in the overall process of socio-economic development as also to ensure availability of work opportunities in sufficient numbers, a special group on targeting ten million employment per year over the. As on December, 2003, the central government had identified about 55,000 posts for abolition in various ministries and departments in line with the recommendations of the Expenditure Reforms Commission (ERC) and over 25,000 posts were abolished in different ministries and departments. After you finish the writing process, have some rest. It is also observed from Table.5(c) that there has been a significant reduction in chronic and invisible unemployment from.2 per cent in 2004-05.6 per cent in 2011-12. New guidelines on the implementation of the pmgy during Annual Plan have been issued to all the State Governments and UTs.

At national level with the average wage paid under the mgnega increasing from Rs 65 in 2006-07 to Rs 115 in 2011-12, the bargaining power of agricultural labourer has increased as even private sector wages have increased as shown in many studies. Subsidy at the rate of 15 per cent of the project cost subject to a ceiling of Rs 7,500 per entrepreneur was provided by Central Government. Agriculture sector is projected to generate no increase in employment during the Eleventh Plan period. At the outset of the Eighth Plan in 1992-93, open unemployment was estimated at 17 million, of which the educated accounted for seven million. (v) Appropriate mix of Production Techniques: Although Mahalanobis strategy of development argued in favour of capital intensive techniques but in order to tackle the problem of rural unemployment the government should adopt a appropriate mix of production techniques where both. The average growth rate of employment per annum from.7 per cent during 1983-94.0 per cent during. Thus, the backlog of unemployment for plan purposes was thus reckoned at 23 million in April, 1992. For the first time, the growth rate of employment in the organised private sector exceeded the employment growth rate in public sector. The sgry restructured as National Rural Livelihood Mission (nrlm).

Secondly, in order to attain effective use of skills it is essential to tailor the supply of skilled labour as per the its requirement so that excess or shortages in skills in different sectors are not faced. The mgnrega provides wage employment along with focusing on strengthening natural resource management through works that address causes of chronic poverty like drought, deforestation and soil erosion and thereby encourage sustainable development. In case of women, the employment in the States and Union Territories during the said period under review fell by 35,000 from.71 lakh on March 31, 2001.36 lakh on March 31, 2002. Employment Policy in the Seventh Plan : During the Seventh Plan, the magnitude of employment requirement was worked out.58 million. The report further observes that with a whopping 97 per cent of the countrys total work force eking out a living in the unorganised sector, the organised sector accounts for a meagre seven per cent of the overall employment in the country.

Unemployment, essay, Sample of, essays

So as to make them unemployment summary essay self-employed in various activities, like agriculture and allied activities, village and small industries, non-farm activities and also in informal sector. As per the.S.S. At the end. Seasonal Unemployment is also prevalent in some agro- based industries viz., Tea Industry, Jute Mills, Sugar Mills, Oil Pressing Mills, Paddy Husking Mills etc. However, some direct employment will be available in the social sector,.e., on health and education. Necessary support to services sector to fulfill their true growth and employment potentials and greater focus on agro-processing and rural services. Seasonally unemployed can also be offered seasonal employment through such special employment programmes. The Approach Paper of Ninth Plan also mentioned that Improvements in quality of employment can be achieved only in a situation of rapidly growing productivity to which the labour can lay a just claim. Now it is to be seen how far all these schemes are implemented properly and can provide additional job opportunities practically. The Agricultural Labour Enquiry Committee Report (First and Second) revealed that in India agricultural labourers had 275 and 237 days of employment in respectively. With rapid expansion of general education in the country the number of out-turn of educated people is increasing day by day. But with the gradual disinvestment of the public sector and increasing capital intensity of the private corporate sector, chances of acceleration of growth of employment is almost nil.

(d) Lastly, reorienting public sector investment towards those sectors having employment bias and influencing private investment decisions to adopt technologies with high employment potential. Till January 31, 2007, about.47 crore job cards have been issued and of the.50 crore households, who have demanded employment,.47 crore households have been provided employment under the scheme. As per the estimates of unemployment made in the Five Year Plan the backlog of unemployment which was.3 million at the end of First Plan gradually increased.1 million,.6 million and then. This is important for ensuring promotion of employment scope as well as for realization of development of the economy. However, from the current year, the Planning Commission is to directly implement this programme. Accordingly, the Government undertook various programmes to generate employment opportunities and to alleviate under-employment prevailing in the country. Children generally dont figure in the size of the economy or the need for jobs, on a large scale. Indian economy has also started to face the brunt of global recession in 2008-09. (iii) Inadequate Employment Planning: In the first phase economic planning in India, employment opportunities could not be increased adequately and little has been done to utilise the Nurksian variety of labour surplus existing in the rural areas. Singh said that the positive impact could be gauged from the fact that India was not only able to pull out itself from serious imbalances on financial and external sectors but had embarked on balanced growth on all fronts. As the technology changes employers search for people with latest technical caliber. Pmgy initially had five components viz., Primary Health, Primary Education, Rural Shelter, Rural Drinking Water and Nutrition.

The Best, essay on The Topic, unemployment

It is generally estimated that nearly 50 per cent of the total population of the country requires employment although in many countries like China, Thailand etc. Later on, as per nsso survey it was revealed that the total number of unemployed persons in the country increased from.0 million in 1993-94.5 million in and then.1 million in 2004-. The 1994-95 budget provide for.1 billion and set a target of employment generation at 980 million man-days, against which the achievement of JRY in 1994-95 was 952 million man-days. Table.5(b) reveals the sectoral employment shares of different sector of the country in recent years. Employment Policy in the Fifth Plan : The Fifth Plan document laid emphasis on the generation of employment in rural areas and aimed at absorbing the increments in the labour force during the plan period by unemployment summary essay stepping up rates of public investment. As a result, the growth rate attained by the industrial sector has come down from.2 per cent in 2006-07 to mere.0 per cent in 2008-09. In the mean time, various studies have been made in this direction. Mental illness: There will be loss of self confidence, frustration, negative attitudes towards common things when there is loss of income, and a persons self-esteem gets hurt due to these mental illnesses. (b) Any adult person in the notified are willing to do unskilled manual work, can apply for registration with Gram Panchayat.

Nehru Rozgar Yojana consists of three sub schemes: (a) Scheme of Urban Micro enterprises. GDP has shot up from.5.3 in the period, but the employment growth rate has fallen from.-78. Thus the employment strategy wiped out the entire backlog of open unemployment and a sizable part of the severe under-employment in the country. Negative attitude by the employees towards the employers creates unhealthy environment in the organization. The Bureau of Labor Statistics in the.S. (November 2014 unemployment rate.3 McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, Texas (November 2014 unemployment rate.2 Redding, Calif.